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Table 1 Comparison of participants characteristics and outcomes in derivation and external validation cohorts*

From: Critical appraisal and external validation of a prognostic model for survival of people living with HIV/AIDS who underwent antiretroviral therapy

Characteristics Derivation cohort of the Wenzhou model [13] External validation cohort
Total (N = 525) Missing values (n (%)) Total (N = 16758) Missing values (n (%))
Study information
 Geographic location East China .. South China ..
 Data source AIDS Prevention and Control Information System in Wenzhou city .. National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program database in a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou city ..
 Follow-up duration January 2006 to December 2018 .. February 2004 to 1 January 2020 ..
Variables in the prognostic model of the Wenzhou study
 Viral load, copies/mL   0 (0.0)   14361 (85.7)
  < 200 413 (78.7) .. 39 (1.6) ..
  200–1000 16 (3.0) .. 57 (2.4) ..
  ≥ 1000 96 (18.3) .. 2301 (96.0) ..
 CD4+ cell count, cells/μL 208.3 (86.0, 328.0) .. 209.00 (72.0, 319.0) 173 (1.1)
 Hemoglobin, g/L 136.7 (118.0, 149.0) .. 137.00 (116.0, 150.0) 237 (1.4)
Variables used for matching by the Wenzhou study  
 Age, year 49.7 (37.3, 63.5) 0 (0.0) 34.3 (27.2, 44.0) 0 (0.0)
 Gender   0 (0.0)   0 (0.0)
  Men 436 (83.0) .. 13662 (81.5) ..
  Women 89 (17.0) .. 3096 (18.5) ..
Other variables in the Wenzhou study  
 Hepatitis B virus   0 (0.0)   3152 (18.8)
  Positive 68 (13.0) .. 1799 (13.2) ..
  Negative 457 (87.0) .. 11807 (86.8) ..
 Tuberculosis   13 (2.5)   17 (0.1)
  Yes 24 (4.6) .. 1097 (6.6) ..
  No 488 (93.0) .. 15644 (93.5) ..
 WHO stage   0 (0.0)   17 (0.1)
  I 265 (50.5) .. 417 (2.5) ..
  II 53 (10.1) .. 392 (2.3) ..
  III 157 (29.9) .. 15535 (92.8) ..
  IV 50 (9.5)   397 (2.4) ..
 Infection pathway   0 (0.0)   692 (4.1)
 NMHR 304 (57.9) .. 7473 (46.5) ..
 MSM 158 (30.1) .. 7271 (45.3) ..
 Others 63 (12.0) .. 1322 (8.2) ..
 Participant category   0 (0.0)   5 (0.03)
  Fixed population 407 (77.5)   10966 (65.4) ..
  Floating population 118 (22.5)   5787 (34.5) ..
 Marital status   0 (0.0)   105 (0.6)
  Married 277 (52.8) .. 7973 (47.9) ..
  Unmarried 248 (47.2) .. 8680 (52.1) ..
 Body mass index, kg/m2‡ 21.3 (19.3, 23.7) 0 (0.0) 20.76 (19.0, 22.9) 2667 (15.9)
 CD8 cell count, cells/μL 861.0 (535.0, 1272.0) 0 (0.0) 786.00 (521.0, 1121.0) 416 (2.5)
 White blood cell, 109/L 5.3 (4.2, 6.8) 0 (0.0) 5.1 (4.1, 6.4) 220 (1.3)
 Platelet, 109/L 186.0 (144.0, 224.0) 0 (0.0) 200.0 (160.0, 242.0) 230 (1.4)
 Creatinine, μmol/L 70.0 (58.6, 81.0) 0 (0.0) 74.0 (63.8, 84.0) 516 (3.1)
 Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.5 (1.0, 2.4) 0 (0.0) 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) 2555 (15.3)
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.1 ± 0.9 0 (0.0) 4.0 (3.4, 4.6) 2559 (15.3)
 Plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.3 (4.7, 6.6) 0 (0.0) 5.2 (4.7, 5.7) 1449 (8.7)
 Aspartate transaminase, U/L 25.0 (19.0, 34.0) 0 (0.0) 23.00 (19.00, 32.00) 249 (1.5)
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L 21.6 (15.0, 34.0) 0 (0.0) 23.00 (16.0, 36.0) 232 (1.4)
 Total bilirubin, μmol/L 10.8 (7.7, 15.4) 0 (0.0) 9.73 (7.2, 13.0) 361 (2.2)
Other variables in the validation cohort
 ART initiation year§     0 (0.0)
  2004-2007 .. .. 575 (3.4) ..
  2008-2011 .. .. 2227 (13.3) ..
  2012-2015 .. .. 5810 (34.7) ..
  2016-2019 .. .. 8146 (48.6) ..
 Baseline ART regimen     0 (0.0)
  First-line .. .. 13286 (79.3) ..
  Others .. .. 3472 (20.7) ..
Outcomes
 Endpoint HIV-related mortality .. All-cause mortality ..
 Number of events 105 .. 743 ..
 Mortality per 1000 person-years 73.1 .. 11.4 ..
  1. NMHR non-marital heterosexual transmission, MSM men who have sex with men, WHO World Health Organization, ART antiretroviral therapy
  2. *Categorical variables are presented as n (%), and continuous variables are presented as median (interquartile range)
  3. Occupation, history of sexually transmitted diseases other than HIV/AIDS, education level, disease stage, and origin of identification were also included in the Wenzhou study but were not included in this study because these data were unavailable in our database
  4. Body mass index = body weight/height2
  5. §Cut-off values of years were determined by changes in Chinese national guidelines for the treatment of HIV/AIDS regarding the threshold of CD4+ cell counts for initiating ART. Prior to 2007, HIV-infected patients with a CD4+ count ≤ 200 cells per μL or those who had been diagnosed with an AIDS-defining illness were eligible for ART initiation. The treatment initiation threshold was raised to 350 cells per μL in 2008 and then to 500 cells per μL in 2012. Since 2016, all PLWHA have been eligible for ART regardless of CD4+ count
  6. First-line ART regimens consist of zidovudine/stavudine/tenofovir + lamivudine + nevirapine/efavirenz