Application in Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters (CCAE) database containing enrollees in US employer-sponsored insurance health plans. Patients are divided into quarters of predicted risk of hospitalization with heart failure. Observed event rates by risk quarter are given (top). The hazard ratios—estimated using stratification on the propensity score—show a decreasing trend in favor of ACE inhibitors (middle). The benefits of ACE inhibitors increase strongly at the absolute scale with increasing hospitalization risk (bottom, absolute risk reduction increases from 0.06% to 0.72%).