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Table 1 Key items for framing aim, search strategy, and study inclusion and exclusion criteria following the PICOTS framework

From: Multivariable prediction models for health care spending using machine learning: a protocol of a systematic review

Item Definition
Population Patients with documented costs of health care services in any setting
Intervention Any prediction model designed to predict individual-level health care spending, patient probabilities for incurring costs of health care services in any setting, or probabilities for any changes in patient costs over time
Comparator Not applicable
Outcomes Any cost-related outcome as reported by prediction models
Timing Predictors measured at any time point preceding outcome; outcome measured in short-term or long-term without applying any specific limitation in prediction horizon
Setting Any health care setting