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Table 1 Study characteristics of the 62 included publications, by study type

From: Risk of bias of prognostic models developed using machine learning: a systematic review in oncology

  All (n = 62) Development only (n = 48) Development and external validation (n = 14)
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Study characteristics
Cancer type
  Lung 8 (12.9) 6 (12.5) 2 (14.3)
  Breast 6 (9.7) 6 (12.5) -
  Colon/colorectal/rectal 6 (9.7) 3 (6.3) 3 (21.4)
  Pancreatic 3 (4.8) 1 (2.1) 2 (14.3)
  Liver 2 (3.2) 2 (4.2) -
  Gastric 3 (4.7) 3 (6.3) -
  Head and neck 5 (8.1) 5 (10.4) -
  Spinal 4 (6.5) 4 (8.3) -
  Brain (inc. meningioma, glioblastoma) 5 (8.1) 4 (8.3) 1 (7.1)
  Oral (inc. nasopharyngeal carcinoma) 3 (4.8) 2 (4.2) 1 (7.1)
  Gynaecological (inc. cervical, ovarian, endometrial) 6 (9.7) 5 (10.4) 1 (7.1)
  Prostate/penile 5 (8.1) 4 (8.3) 1 (7.1)
  Skin (inc. melanoma) 2 (3.2) 1 (2.1) 1 (7.1)
  Other* 4 (6.5) 2 (4.2) 2 (14.3)
Target population
  Cancer patients 55 (88.7) 43 (89.6) 12 (85.7)
  General population 6 (9.7) 4 (8.3) 2 (14.3)
  Unclear 1 (1.6) 1 (2.1) -
Outcome
  Binary 48 (77.4) 40 (83.3) 8 (57.1)
  Complication 11 11 -
  Survival 8 7 1
  Recurrence 7 4 3
  Cancer occurrence 6 4 2
  Metastases 4 3 1
  Treatment response 4 4 -
  Mortality 3 2 1
  Resection 3 3 -
  Screening 1 1 -
  Progression 1 1 -
  Continuous 1 (1.6) - 1 (7.1)
  Length of stay 1 - 1
  Multinomial 2 (3.2) 2 (4.2) -
  Test result 1 1 -
  Treatment response 1 1 -
  Time to event 11 (17.7) 6 (12.5) 5 (35.7)
  Overall survival 7 3 4
  Cancer specific survival 1 - 1
  Cause specific mortality 1 1 -
  Disease specific survival 1 1 -
  Progression free survival 1 1 -
  1. *Other includes peritoneal carcinomatosis, incurable cancer (various), leukaemia, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour