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  1. For residential aged care facility (RACF) residents with dementia, lack of prognostic guidance presents a significant challenge for end of life care planning. In an attempt to address this issue, models have b...

    Authors: Ross Bicknell, Wen Kwang Lim, Andrea B. Maier and Dina LoGiudice
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:17

    The Correction to this article has been published in Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:9

  2. The primary objective of this review is to assess the accuracy of machine learning methods in their application of triaging the acuity of patients presenting in the Emergency Care System (ECS). The population ...

    Authors: Jamie Miles, Janette Turner, Richard Jacques, Julia Williams and Suzanne Mason
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:16
  3. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a leading cause of hospital admissions and is diagnosed based on urinary symptoms and microbiological cultures. Due to lags in the availability of culture results of up to 72 h...

    Authors: Patrick Rockenschaub, Martin J. Gill, David McNulty, Orlagh Carroll, Nick Freemantle and Laura Shallcross
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:15
  4. Stability of risk estimates from prediction models may be highly dependent on the sample size of the dataset available for model derivation. In this paper, we evaluate the stability of cardiovascular disease r...

    Authors: Alexander Pate, Richard Emsley, Matthew Sperrin, Glen P. Martin and Tjeerd van Staa
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:14
  5. Heart failure (HF) is a chronic and common condition with a rising prevalence, especially in the elderly. Morbidity and mortality rates in people with HF are similar to those with common forms of cancer. Clini...

    Authors: Maria D. L. A. Vazquez-Montes, Thomas P. A. Debray, Kathryn S. Taylor, Benjamin Speich, Nicholas Jones, Gary S. Collins, F. D. R. Richard Hobbs, Emmanuella Magriplis, Hugo Maruri-Aguilar, Karel G. M. Moons, John Parissis, Rafael Perera, Nia Roberts, Clare J. Taylor, Nikolaos P. E. Kadoglou and Marialena Trivella
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:13
  6. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis is crucial to prevent detrimental outcomes. General practitioners (GPs) are often the first healthcare providers to encounter seriously ill patients. The aim of this s...

    Authors: Feike J. Loots, Rogier Hopstaken, Kevin Jenniskens, Geert W. J. Frederix, Alma C. van de Pol, Ann Van den Bruel, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Arthur R. H. van Zanten, Marleen Smits and Theo J. M. Verheij
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:12
  7. Clinical prediction models (CPMs) predict the risk of health outcomes for individual patients. The majority of existing CPMs only harness cross-sectional patient information. Incorporating repeated measurement...

    Authors: Lucy M. Bull, Mark Lunt, Glen P. Martin, Kimme Hyrich and Jamie C. Sergeant
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:9
  8. Field triage of trauma patients is crucial to get the right patient to the right hospital within a particular time frame. Minimization of undertriage, overtriage, and interhospital transfer rates could substan...

    Authors: Rogier van der Sluijs, Audrey A. A. Fiddelers, Job F. Waalwijk, Johannes B. Reitsma, Miranda J. Dirx, Dennis den Hartog, Silvia M. A. A. Evers, J. Carel Goslings, W. Margreet Hoogeveen, Koen W. Lansink, Luke P. H. Leenen, Mark van Heijl and Martijn Poeze
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:10
  9. There is much interest in the use of prognostic and diagnostic prediction models in all areas of clinical medicine. The use of machine learning to improve prognostic and diagnostic accuracy in this area has be...

    Authors: Anita L. Lynam, John M. Dennis, Katharine R. Owen, Richard A. Oram, Angus G. Jones, Beverley M. Shields and Lauric A. Ferrat
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:6
  10. The goal is to investigate prognostic factors for change in memory test performance in healthy older adults and to report and discuss the different statistical procedures used for investigating this topic in t...

    Authors: Mandy Roheger, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Fabian Krohm, Nicole Skoetz and Elke Kalbe
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:7
  11. The need for life-saving interventions such as mechanical ventilation may threaten to outstrip resources during the Covid-19 pandemic. Allocation of these resources to those most likely to benefit can be suppo...

    Authors: David M. Kent, Jessica K. Paulus, Richard R. Sharp and Negin Hajizadeh
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:11
  12. CS constitutes a rare but potentially underdiagnosed and fatal disease. Its diagnosis remains difficult owing to the infrequent and indistinguishable symptoms and the lack of formal diagnostic criteria depende...

    Authors: Dominik Roth, Nikolaos Kadoglou, Mariska Leeflang, Rene Spijker, Harald Herkner and Marialena Trivella
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:5
  13. To test the hypothesis that treatment decisions (treatment with a PCSK9-mAb versus no treatment) are both more effective and more cost-effective when based on estimated lifetime benefit than when based on esti...

    Authors: Gijs F. N. Berkelmans, Jacoba P. Greving, Yolanda van der Graaf, Frank L. J. Visseren and Jannick A. N. Dorresteijn
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:4
  14. How to select variables and identify functional forms for continuous variables is a key concern when creating a multivariable model. Ad hoc ‘traditional’ approaches to variable selection have been in use for a...

    Authors: Willi Sauerbrei, Aris Perperoglou, Matthias Schmid, Michal Abrahamowicz, Heiko Becher, Harald Binder, Daniela Dunkler, Frank E. Harrell Jr, Patrick Royston and Georg Heinze
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:3
  15. Early identification and treatment of stroke improve outcome. Ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) benefits from time-critical thrombectomy but this is only available in highly specialised heal...

    Authors: Christopher I. Price, Lisa Shaw, Anand Dixit, Sara Graziadio, Clare Lendrem, Dipayan Mitra, Helen Rodgers, Lou Sutcliffe and Phil White
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:2
  16. Prognostic models for repeated events of the same type are highly useful in predicting when a patient may have a recurrence of a chronic disease or illness. Whilst methods are currently available for analysing...

    Authors: Victoria Watson, Catrin Tudur Smith and Laura Bonnett
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:1
  17. Most randomized controlled trials evaluating medical interventions have a pre-specified hypothesis, which is statistically tested against the null hypothesis of no effect. In diagnostic accuracy studies, study...

    Authors: Daniël A. Korevaar, Gowri Gopalakrishna, Jérémie F. Cohen and Patrick M. Bossuyt
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:22
  18. Diagnosis of lung cancer frequently occurs in its later stages. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) could detect lung cancer early.

    Authors: Huiqin Yang, Jo Varley-Campbell, Helen Coelho, Linda Long, Sophie Robinson, Tristan Snowsill, Ed Griffin, Jaime Peters and Chris Hyde
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:23
  19. Psychotic disorders affect about 3% of the population worldwide and are associated with high personal, social and economic costs. They tend to have their first onset in adolescence. Increasing emphasis has bee...

    Authors: Laura J. Bonnett, Filippo Varese, Catrin Tudur Smith, Allan Flores and Alison R. Yung
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:21
  20. The effect of extended adjuvant aromatase inhibition in hormone-positive breast cancer after sequential tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor treatment of 5 years was recently investigated by the DATA study. This stu...

    Authors: Tim C. de Ruijter, Kim M. Smits, Maureen J. Aarts, Irene E. G. van Hellemond, Leander Van Neste, Bart de Vries, Petronella G. M. Peer, Jürgen Veeck, Manon van Engeland and Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:20
  21. Decision curve analysis is a method to evaluate prediction models and diagnostic tests that was introduced in a 2006 publication. Decision curves are now commonly reported in the literature, but there remains ...

    Authors: Andrew J. Vickers, Ben van Calster and Ewout W. Steyerberg
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:18
  22. Indirect muscle injuries (IMIs) are a considerable burden to elite football (soccer) teams, and prevention of these injuries offers many benefits. Preseason medical, musculoskeletal and performance screening (...

    Authors: Tom Hughes, Richard Riley, Jamie C. Sergeant and Michael J. Callaghan
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:19
  23. A variety of study designs are available to evaluate the accuracy of tests, but the terms used to describe these designs seem to lack clarity and standardization. We investigated if this was the case in the di...

    Authors: M. Olsen, Z. Zhelev, H. Hunt, J. L. Peters, P. Bossuyt and C. Hyde
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:17
  24. Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) that predict the absolute risk of a clinical condition or future outcome for individual patients are abundant in the medical literature; however, systematic reviews have demons...

    Authors: Laura E. Cowley, Daniel M. Farewell, Sabine Maguire and Alison M. Kemp
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:16
  25. Shoulder pain is one of the most common presentations of musculoskeletal pain with a 1-month population prevalence of between 7 and 26%. The overall prognosis of shoulder pain is highly variable with 40% of pa...

    Authors: Danielle A. van der Windt, Danielle L. Burke, Opeyemi Babatunde, Miriam Hattle, Cliona McRobert, Chris Littlewood, Gwenllian Wynne-Jones, Linda Chesterton, Geert J. M. G. van der Heijden, Jan C. Winters, Daniel I. Rhon, Kim Bennell, Edward Roddy, Carl Heneghan, David Beard, Jonathan L. Rees…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:15
  26. Prognostic markers use an individual’s characteristics at a given time to predict future disease events, with the ultimate goal of guiding medical decision-making. If an accurate prediction can be made, then a...

    Authors: Aasthaa Bansal and Patrick J. Heagerty
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:14
  27. Over the past few years, evidence synthesis has become essential to investigate and improve the generalizability of medical research findings. This strategy often involves a meta-analysis to formally summarize...

    Authors: Thomas P.A. Debray, Valentijn M.T. de Jong, Karel G.M. Moons and Richard D. Riley
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:13
  28. Adequate field triage of trauma patients is crucial to transport patients to the right hospital. Mistriage and subsequent interhospital transfers should be minimized to reduce avoidable mortality, life-long di...

    Authors: Rogier van der Sluijs, Thomas P. A. Debray, Martijn Poeze, Loek P. H. Leenen and Mark van Heijl
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:12
  29. Discriminative ability is an important aspect of prediction model performance, but challenging to assess in clustered (e.g., multicenter) data. Concordance (c)-indexes may be too extreme within small clusters....

    Authors: David van Klaveren, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Mithat Gönen and Yvonne Vergouwe
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:11
  30. Driven by alcohol consumption and obesity, the prevalence of non-viral liver disease in the UK is increasing. Due to its silent and slow nature, the progression of liver disease is currently unpredictable and ...

    Authors: Suvi Härmälä, Alastair O’Brien, Constantinos A. Parisinos, Kenan Direk, Laura Shallcross and Andrew Hayward
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:10
  31. Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at high risk of adverse outcomes, but it is not possible to predict which pregnancies will develop complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate, in monochorionic twin ...

    Authors: Fiona L. Mackie, Rebecca Whittle, R. Katie Morris, Jon Hyett, Richard D. Riley and Mark D. Kilby
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:9
  32. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), bacteria which are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, present an urgent public health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the potent...

    Authors: Eoin Moloney, Kai Wai Lee, Dawn Craig, A. Joy Allen, Sara Graziadio, Michael Power and Carolyn Steeds
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:8
  33. Assessment of diagnostic tests, broadly defined as any element that aids in the collection of additional information for further clarification of a patient’s health status, has increasingly become a critical i...

    Authors: Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Andrea C. Tricco, Karen R. Steingart, Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, David Kaunelis, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Susan Baxter, Patrick M. Bossuyt and Javier Zamora
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:7
  34. In addition to direct slide microscopy, traditional culture method (TCM) has long been considered as a gold standard method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, TCM is relatively expensi...

    Authors: Lensa Aberra, Adugna Abera, Tariku Belay, Amha Kebede, Endalamaw Gadisa and Geremew Tasew
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:4
  35. Many studies have been performed to identify important prognostic factors for outcomes after rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain, and there is a need to synthesize them through systematic review. In t...

    Authors: Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas Grooten, Elena Tseli, Björn Olov Äng, Katja Boersma, Britt-Marie Stålnacke, Björn Gerdle and Paul Enthoven
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:5
  36. Clinical prediction models are often constructed using multicenter databases. Such a data structure poses additional challenges for statistical analysis (clustered data) but offers opportunities for model gene...

    Authors: L. Wynants, D. M. Kent, D. Timmerman, C. M. Lundquist and B. Van Calster
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:6
  37. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines provide a class I recommendation for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) ...

    Authors: Andrew Perry, Matthew J. Chung, Eric Novak, Ronald Krone and David L. Brown
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:3
  38. Personalized, precision, and risk-based medicine are becoming increasingly important in medicine. These involve the use of information about the prognosis of a patient, to make individualized treatment decisio...

    Authors: Johanna A. A. G. Damen and Lotty Hooft
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:2
  39. Low back pain is one of the most common and disabling health problems in Canada and internationally. In most cases, low back pain is a benign, self-limiting condition that can be managed with little diagnostic...

    Authors: Jill A. Hayden, Rachel Ogilvie, Samuel Alan Stewart, Simon French, Samuel Campbell, Kirk Magee, Patrick Slipp, George Wells and Ian Stiell
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:1
  40. Disease populations, clinical practice, and healthcare systems are constantly evolving. This can result in clinical prediction models quickly becoming outdated and less accurate over time. A potential solution...

    Authors: David A. Jenkins, Matthew Sperrin, Glen P. Martin and Niels Peek
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:23
  41. Lung cancer is a common cancer, with over 1.3 million cases worldwide each year. Early diagnosis using computed tomography (CT) screening has been shown to reduce mortality but also detect non-malignant nodule...

    Authors: Jason L. Oke, Lyndsey C. Pickup, Jérôme Declerck, Matthew E. Callister, David Baldwin, Jennifer Gustafson, Heiko Peschl, Sarim Ather, Maria Tsakok, Alan Exell and Fergus Gleeson
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:22
  42. Population-based risk prediction tools exist for individual chronic diseases. From a population health perspective, studying chronic diseases together provides a comprehensive view of the burden of disease in ...

    Authors: Ryan Ng, Rinku Sutradhar, Walter P. Wodchis and Laura C. Rosella
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:19
  43. Building prognostic models of clinical outcomes is an increasingly important research task and will remain a vital area in genomic medicine. Prognostic models of clinical outcomes are usually built and validat...

    Authors: Lira Pi and Susan Halabi
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:21
  44. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on the earlier detection of deterioration in the clinical condition of hospital patients with the aim of instigating earlier treatment to reverse this deteriora...

    Authors: Matthew J. Reed, Megan McGrath, Polly L. Black, Steff Lewis, Christopher McCann, Stewart Whiting, Rachel O’Brien, Alison Grant, Beth Harrison, Laura Skyrme and Miranda Odam
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:18
  45. Chest X-ray has been the standard imaging method for patients suspected of non-traumatic pulmonary disease at the emergency department (ED) for years. Recently, ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (ULD ch...

    Authors: Inge A. H. van den Berk, Maadrika M. N. P. Kanglie, Tjitske S. R. van Engelen, Shandra Bipat, Marcel G. W. Dijkgraaf, Patrick M. M. Bossuyt, Wouter de Monyé, Jan M. Prins and Jaap Stoker
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:20

    The Update to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:407

  46. Influenza is an acute viral infection of the respiratory tract. A rapid confirmatory diagnosis of influenza is important, since it is highly transmissible and outbreaks of influenza within the hospital setting...

    Authors: A. J. Allen, R. A. O’Leary, S. Davis, S. Graziadio, W. S. Jones, A. J. Simpson, D. A. Price, L. Vale and M. Power
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:15
  47. The risk reclassification table assesses clinical performance of a biomarker in terms of movements across relevant risk categories. The Reclassification- Calibration (RC) statistic has been developed for binar...

    Authors: Olga V. Demler, Nina P. Paynter and Nancy R. Cook
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:16
  48. Competing risks occur when populations may experience outcomes that either preclude or alter the probability of experiencing the main study outcome(s). Many standard survival analysis methods do not account fo...

    Authors: Benjamin G. Feakins, Emily C. McFadden, Andrew J. Farmer and Richard J. Stevens
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:13

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