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Table 4 Detailed clinical outcomes and costs, for participants of strategies on the cost-effectiveness frontier

From: Lung cancer screening by low-dose computed tomography: a cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative programmes in the UK using a newly developed natural history-based economic model

Screening programme strategy No screening S-60-75-3% S-55-75-3% S-55-80-3% T-55-80-3%
Mean outcomes per participant (versus no screening)
 Number of screens   1.00 1.00 1.00 2.70
 Number of false positives   0.33 0.33 0.33 0.95
 Lead time (years)   0.2995 0.2992 0.2952 0.3946
 Life years gained (years)   0.0537 0.0568 0.0524 0.0762
 QALYs   0.0008 0.0009 0.001 0.0012
 Change in lung cancer mortality   − 0.80% − 0.45% − 0.43% − 0.64%
 Change in 5-year lung cancer survival   + 16.1% + 16.4% + 16.1% + 21.0%
 Change in survival with lung cancer (years)   + 1.87 + 1.89 + 1.85 + 2.44
 Change in age at lung cancer diagnosis (years)   − 1.7 − 1.69 − 1.62 − 2.03
 Change in age at death from any cause (years)   + 0.05 + 0.06 + 0.05 + 0.08
 Change in age at death from lung cancer (years)   + 0.16 + 0.2 + 0.23 + 0.41
Outcomes per 100,000 participants
 Proportion of diagnoses arising from screening   44.4% 44.3% 47.1% 62.5%
 Number of screen-detected cases   1710 1785 2335 3185
 Number of interval cancers   0 0 0 215
 Additional lung cancer diagnoses   295 300 450 590
 Lung cancer deaths averted   170 100 120 180
 Life years gained   5367 5677 5242 7617
Costs for each participant (£, versus no screening)
 LDCT screening   104 104 104 275
 Lung cancer care   1458 1445 1469 1724
 End-of-life   534 530 515 505
 Total   2097 2080 2088 2504
Population of 13 million smokers aged 55–80 years (lifetime costs, £ million)
 Screening administration 0 80.16 110.97 118.66 118.66
 LDCT screening 0 41.42 43.53 54.06 142.48
 Lung cancer care 9355 9540 9547 9610 9742
 End-of-life 4979 4972 4971 4970 4965
 Total 14,334 14,633 14,673 14,753 14,968
 Additional vs no screening   299.1 338.8 418.5 634.2
  1. LDCT low-dose computed tomography, QALY quality-adjusted life year, S single one-off screen design, T triple-screen design. Strategy nomenclature: X-XX-XX-X% = screening programme design type-minimum entry age-maximum entry age-minimum lung cancer risk threshold