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  1. Incremental value (IncV) evaluates the performance change between an existing risk model and a new model. Different IncV metrics do not always agree with each other. For example, compared with a prescribed-dos...

    Authors: Qian M. Zhou, Lu Zhe, Russell J. Brooke, Melissa M. Hudson and Yan Yuan

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Most patients who present with depression are treated in primary care by general practitioners (GPs). Relapse of depression is common (at least 50% of patients treated for depression will relapse after a singl...

    Authors: Andrew S. Moriarty, Lewis W. Paton, Kym I. E. Snell, Richard D. Riley, Joshua E. J. Buckman, Simon Gilbody, Carolyn A. Chew-Graham, Shehzad Ali, Stephen Pilling, Nick Meader, Bob Phillips, Peter A. Coventry, Jaime Delgadillo, David A. Richards, Chris Salisbury and Dean McMillan

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:12

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  3. Rapid treatment of stroke improves outcomes, but accurate early recognition can be challenging. Between 20 and 40% of patients suspected to have stroke by ambulance and emergency department staff later receive...

    Authors: Lisa Shaw, Sara Graziadio, Clare Lendrem, Nicholas Dale, Gary A. Ford, Christine Roffe, Craig J. Smith, Philip M. White and Christopher I. Price

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:11

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  4. Invasive urodynamics is used to investigate the causes of lower urinary tract symptoms; a procedure usually conducted in secondary care by specialist practitioners. No study has yet investigated the feasibilit...

    Authors: Sarah Milosevic, Natalie Joseph-Williams, Bethan Pell, Elizabeth Cain, Robyn Hackett, Ffion Murdoch, Haroon Ahmed, A. Joy Allen, Alison Bray, Samantha Clarke, Marcus J. Drake, Michael Drinnan, Kerenza Hood, Tom Schatzberger, Yemisi Takwoingi, Emma Thomas-Jones…

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ross Bicknell, Wen Kwang Lim, Andrea B. Maier and Dina LoGiudice

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:9

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:17

  6. We suggest an adaptive sample size calculation method for developing clinical prediction models, in which model performance is monitored sequentially as new data comes in.

    Authors: Evangelia Christodoulou, Maarten van Smeden, Michael Edlinger, Dirk Timmerman, Maria Wanitschek, Ewout W. Steyerberg and Ben Van Calster

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. Pregnancy offers a unique opportunity to identify women at higher future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In pregnancy, a woman has greater engagement with the healthcare system, and certain conditions a...

    Authors: Stephanie H. Read, Laura C. Rosella, Howard Berger, Denice S. Feig, Karen Fleming, Padma Kaul, Joel G. Ray, Baiju R. Shah and Lorraine L. Lipscombe

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:5

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  8. The aim of RApid community Point-of-care Testing fOR COVID-19 (RAPTOR-C19) is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of multiple current and emerging point-of-care tests (POCTs) for active and past SARS-CoV2 infect...

    Authors: Brian D. Nicholson, Gail Hayward, Philip J. Turner, Joseph J. Lee, Alexandra Deeks, Mary Logan, Abigail Moore, Anna Seeley, Thomas Fanshawe, Jason Oke, Constantinos Koshiaris, James P. Sheppard, Uy Hoang, Vaishnavi Parimalanathan, George Edwards, Harshana Liyange…

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:4

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  9. The methods with which prediction models are usually developed mean that neither the parameters nor the predictions should be interpreted causally. For many applications, this is perfectly acceptable. However,...

    Authors: Lijing Lin, Matthew Sperrin, David A. Jenkins, Glen P. Martin and Niels Peek

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  10. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) comprises a sequence of interventions concerned with the creation and culture of embryos which are then transferred to the patient’s uterus. While the clinically important endpoint...

    Authors: Jack Wilkinson, Andy Vail and Stephen A. Roberts

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:2

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  11. Clinical prediction models (CPMs) have become fundamental for risk stratification across healthcare. The CPM pipeline (development, validation, deployment, and impact assessment) is commonly viewed as a one-ti...

    Authors: David A. Jenkins, Glen P. Martin, Matthew Sperrin, Richard D. Riley, Thomas P. A. Debray, Gary S. Collins and Niels Peek

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:1

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  12. Despite advances in the care of women and their babies in the past century, an estimated 1.7 million babies are born still each year throughout the world. A robust method to estimate a pregnant woman’s individ...

    Authors: Jessica K. Sexton, Michael Coory, Sailesh Kumar, Gordon Smith, Adrienne Gordon, Georgina Chambers, Gavin Pereira, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Lisa Hilder, Philippa Middleton, Anneka Bowman, Scott N. Lieske, Kara Warrilow, Jonathan Morris, David Ellwood and Vicki Flenady

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:21

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  13. A systematic review of economic evaluations for lung cancer identified no economic models of the UK setting based on disease natural history. We first sought to develop a new model of natural history for popul...

    Authors: Edward Griffin, Chris Hyde, Linda Long, Jo Varley-Campbell, Helen Coelho, Sophie Robinson and Tristan Snowsill

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, a model has been developed in Wenzhou, China, to predict the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who underwent antiretroviral therapy ...

    Authors: Junfeng Wang, Tanwei Yuan, Xuemei Ling, Quanmin Li, Xiaoping Tang, Weiping Cai, Huachun Zou and Linghua Li

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Premature mortality is an important population health indicator used to assess health system functioning and to identify areas in need of health system intervention. Predicting the future incidence of prematur...

    Authors: Laura C. Rosella, Meghan O’Neill, Stacey Fisher, Mackenzie Hurst, Lori Diemert, Kathy Kornas, Andy Hong and Douglas G. Manuel

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:18

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. For residential aged care facility (RACF) residents with dementia, lack of prognostic guidance presents a significant challenge for end of life care planning. In an attempt to address this issue, models have b...

    Authors: Ross Bicknell, Wen Kwang Lim, Andrea B. Maier and Dina LoGiudice

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:17

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2021 5:9

  17. The primary objective of this review is to assess the accuracy of machine learning methods in their application of triaging the acuity of patients presenting in the Emergency Care System (ECS). The population ...

    Authors: Jamie Miles, Janette Turner, Richard Jacques, Julia Williams and Suzanne Mason

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a leading cause of hospital admissions and is diagnosed based on urinary symptoms and microbiological cultures. Due to lags in the availability of culture results of up to 72 h...

    Authors: Patrick Rockenschaub, Martin J. Gill, David McNulty, Orlagh Carroll, Nick Freemantle and Laura Shallcross

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:15

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  19. Stability of risk estimates from prediction models may be highly dependent on the sample size of the dataset available for model derivation. In this paper, we evaluate the stability of cardiovascular disease r...

    Authors: Alexander Pate, Richard Emsley, Matthew Sperrin, Glen P. Martin and Tjeerd van Staa

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:14

    Content type: Research

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  20. Heart failure (HF) is a chronic and common condition with a rising prevalence, especially in the elderly. Morbidity and mortality rates in people with HF are similar to those with common forms of cancer. Clini...

    Authors: Maria D. L. A. Vazquez-Montes, Thomas P. A. Debray, Kathryn S. Taylor, Benjamin Speich, Nicholas Jones, Gary S. Collins, F. D. R. Richard Hobbs, Emmanuella Magriplis, Hugo Maruri-Aguilar, Karel G. M. Moons, John Parissis, Rafael Perera, Nia Roberts, Clare J. Taylor, Nikolaos P. E. Kadoglou and Marialena Trivella

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:13

    Content type: Protocol

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  21. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis is crucial to prevent detrimental outcomes. General practitioners (GPs) are often the first healthcare providers to encounter seriously ill patients. The aim of this s...

    Authors: Feike J. Loots, Rogier Hopstaken, Kevin Jenniskens, Geert W. J. Frederix, Alma C. van de Pol, Ann Van den Bruel, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Arthur R. H. van Zanten, Marleen Smits and Theo J. M. Verheij

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:12

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. Clinical prediction models (CPMs) predict the risk of health outcomes for individual patients. The majority of existing CPMs only harness cross-sectional patient information. Incorporating repeated measurement...

    Authors: Lucy M. Bull, Mark Lunt, Glen P. Martin, Kimme Hyrich and Jamie C. Sergeant

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:9

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. Field triage of trauma patients is crucial to get the right patient to the right hospital within a particular time frame. Minimization of undertriage, overtriage, and interhospital transfer rates could substan...

    Authors: Rogier van der Sluijs, Audrey A. A. Fiddelers, Job F. Waalwijk, Johannes B. Reitsma, Miranda J. Dirx, Dennis den Hartog, Silvia M. A. A. Evers, J. Carel Goslings, W. Margreet Hoogeveen, Koen W. Lansink, Luke P. H. Leenen, Mark van Heijl and Martijn Poeze

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:10

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  24. There is much interest in the use of prognostic and diagnostic prediction models in all areas of clinical medicine. The use of machine learning to improve prognostic and diagnostic accuracy in this area has be...

    Authors: Anita L. Lynam, John M. Dennis, Katharine R. Owen, Richard A. Oram, Angus G. Jones, Beverley M. Shields and Lauric A. Ferrat

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The goal is to investigate prognostic factors for change in memory test performance in healthy older adults and to report and discuss the different statistical procedures used for investigating this topic in t...

    Authors: Mandy Roheger, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Fabian Krohm, Nicole Skoetz and Elke Kalbe

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. The need for life-saving interventions such as mechanical ventilation may threaten to outstrip resources during the Covid-19 pandemic. Allocation of these resources to those most likely to benefit can be suppo...

    Authors: David M. Kent, Jessica K. Paulus, Richard R. Sharp and Negin Hajizadeh

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:11

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  27. CS constitutes a rare but potentially underdiagnosed and fatal disease. Its diagnosis remains difficult owing to the infrequent and indistinguishable symptoms and the lack of formal diagnostic criteria depende...

    Authors: Dominik Roth, Nikolaos Kadoglou, Mariska Leeflang, Rene Spijker, Harald Herkner and Marialena Trivella

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:5

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  28. To test the hypothesis that treatment decisions (treatment with a PCSK9-mAb versus no treatment) are both more effective and more cost-effective when based on estimated lifetime benefit than when based on esti...

    Authors: Gijs F. N. Berkelmans, Jacoba P. Greving, Yolanda van der Graaf, Frank L. J. Visseren and Jannick A. N. Dorresteijn

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. How to select variables and identify functional forms for continuous variables is a key concern when creating a multivariable model. Ad hoc ‘traditional’ approaches to variable selection have been in use for a...

    Authors: Willi Sauerbrei, Aris Perperoglou, Matthias Schmid, Michal Abrahamowicz, Heiko Becher, Harald Binder, Daniela Dunkler, Frank E. Harrell Jr, Patrick Royston and Georg Heinze

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:3

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  30. Early identification and treatment of stroke improve outcome. Ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) benefits from time-critical thrombectomy but this is only available in highly specialised heal...

    Authors: Christopher I. Price, Lisa Shaw, Anand Dixit, Sara Graziadio, Clare Lendrem, Dipayan Mitra, Helen Rodgers, Lou Sutcliffe and Phil White

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:2

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  31. Prognostic models for repeated events of the same type are highly useful in predicting when a patient may have a recurrence of a chronic disease or illness. Whilst methods are currently available for analysing...

    Authors: Victoria Watson, Catrin Tudur Smith and Laura Bonnett

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2020 4:1

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  32. Most randomized controlled trials evaluating medical interventions have a pre-specified hypothesis, which is statistically tested against the null hypothesis of no effect. In diagnostic accuracy studies, study...

    Authors: Daniël A. Korevaar, Gowri Gopalakrishna, Jérémie F. Cohen and Patrick M. Bossuyt

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:22

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  33. Diagnosis of lung cancer frequently occurs in its later stages. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) could detect lung cancer early.

    Authors: Huiqin Yang, Jo Varley-Campbell, Helen Coelho, Linda Long, Sophie Robinson, Tristan Snowsill, Ed Griffin, Jaime Peters and Chris Hyde

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Psychotic disorders affect about 3% of the population worldwide and are associated with high personal, social and economic costs. They tend to have their first onset in adolescence. Increasing emphasis has bee...

    Authors: Laura J. Bonnett, Filippo Varese, Catrin Tudur Smith, Allan Flores and Alison R. Yung

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:21

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  35. The effect of extended adjuvant aromatase inhibition in hormone-positive breast cancer after sequential tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor treatment of 5 years was recently investigated by the DATA study. This stu...

    Authors: Tim C. de Ruijter, Kim M. Smits, Maureen J. Aarts, Irene E. G. van Hellemond, Leander Van Neste, Bart de Vries, Petronella G. M. Peer, Jürgen Veeck, Manon van Engeland and Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:20

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  36. Decision curve analysis is a method to evaluate prediction models and diagnostic tests that was introduced in a 2006 publication. Decision curves are now commonly reported in the literature, but there remains ...

    Authors: Andrew J. Vickers, Ben van Calster and Ewout W. Steyerberg

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:18

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  37. Indirect muscle injuries (IMIs) are a considerable burden to elite football (soccer) teams, and prevention of these injuries offers many benefits. Preseason medical, musculoskeletal and performance screening (...

    Authors: Tom Hughes, Richard Riley, Jamie C. Sergeant and Michael J. Callaghan

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:19

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  38. A variety of study designs are available to evaluate the accuracy of tests, but the terms used to describe these designs seem to lack clarity and standardization. We investigated if this was the case in the di...

    Authors: M. Olsen, Z. Zhelev, H. Hunt, J. L. Peters, P. Bossuyt and C. Hyde

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) that predict the absolute risk of a clinical condition or future outcome for individual patients are abundant in the medical literature; however, systematic reviews have demons...

    Authors: Laura E. Cowley, Daniel M. Farewell, Sabine Maguire and Alison M. Kemp

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. Shoulder pain is one of the most common presentations of musculoskeletal pain with a 1-month population prevalence of between 7 and 26%. The overall prognosis of shoulder pain is highly variable with 40% of pa...

    Authors: Danielle A. van der Windt, Danielle L. Burke, Opeyemi Babatunde, Miriam Hattle, Cliona McRobert, Chris Littlewood, Gwenllian Wynne-Jones, Linda Chesterton, Geert J. M. G. van der Heijden, Jan C. Winters, Daniel I. Rhon, Kim Bennell, Edward Roddy, Carl Heneghan, David Beard, Jonathan L. Rees…

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:15

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  41. Prognostic markers use an individual’s characteristics at a given time to predict future disease events, with the ultimate goal of guiding medical decision-making. If an accurate prediction can be made, then a...

    Authors: Aasthaa Bansal and Patrick J. Heagerty

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:14

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  42. Over the past few years, evidence synthesis has become essential to investigate and improve the generalizability of medical research findings. This strategy often involves a meta-analysis to formally summarize...

    Authors: Thomas P.A. Debray, Valentijn M.T. de Jong, Karel G.M. Moons and Richard D. Riley

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:13

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  43. Adequate field triage of trauma patients is crucial to transport patients to the right hospital. Mistriage and subsequent interhospital transfers should be minimized to reduce avoidable mortality, life-long di...

    Authors: Rogier van der Sluijs, Thomas P. A. Debray, Martijn Poeze, Loek P. H. Leenen and Mark van Heijl

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:12

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  44. Discriminative ability is an important aspect of prediction model performance, but challenging to assess in clustered (e.g., multicenter) data. Concordance (c)-indexes may be too extreme within small clusters....

    Authors: David van Klaveren, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Mithat Gönen and Yvonne Vergouwe

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:11

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  45. Driven by alcohol consumption and obesity, the prevalence of non-viral liver disease in the UK is increasing. Due to its silent and slow nature, the progression of liver disease is currently unpredictable and ...

    Authors: Suvi Härmälä, Alastair O’Brien, Constantinos A. Parisinos, Kenan Direk, Laura Shallcross and Andrew Hayward

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:10

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  46. Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at high risk of adverse outcomes, but it is not possible to predict which pregnancies will develop complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate, in monochorionic twin ...

    Authors: Fiona L. Mackie, Rebecca Whittle, R. Katie Morris, Jon Hyett, Richard D. Riley and Mark D. Kilby

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), bacteria which are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, present an urgent public health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the potent...

    Authors: Eoin Moloney, Kai Wai Lee, Dawn Craig, A. Joy Allen, Sara Graziadio, Michael Power and Carolyn Steeds

    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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