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  1. Psychotic disorders affect about 3% of the population worldwide and are associated with high personal, social and economic costs. They tend to have their first onset in adolescence. Increasing emphasis has bee...

    Authors: Laura J. Bonnett, Filippo Varese, Catrin Tudur Smith, Allan Flores and Alison R. Yung
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:21
  2. The effect of extended adjuvant aromatase inhibition in hormone-positive breast cancer after sequential tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor treatment of 5 years was recently investigated by the DATA study. This stu...

    Authors: Tim C. de Ruijter, Kim M. Smits, Maureen J. Aarts, Irene E. G. van Hellemond, Leander Van Neste, Bart de Vries, Petronella G. M. Peer, Jürgen Veeck, Manon van Engeland and Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:20
  3. Decision curve analysis is a method to evaluate prediction models and diagnostic tests that was introduced in a 2006 publication. Decision curves are now commonly reported in the literature, but there remains ...

    Authors: Andrew J. Vickers, Ben van Calster and Ewout W. Steyerberg
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:18
  4. Indirect muscle injuries (IMIs) are a considerable burden to elite football (soccer) teams, and prevention of these injuries offers many benefits. Preseason medical, musculoskeletal and performance screening (...

    Authors: Tom Hughes, Richard Riley, Jamie C. Sergeant and Michael J. Callaghan
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:19
  5. A variety of study designs are available to evaluate the accuracy of tests, but the terms used to describe these designs seem to lack clarity and standardization. We investigated if this was the case in the di...

    Authors: M. Olsen, Z. Zhelev, H. Hunt, J. L. Peters, P. Bossuyt and C. Hyde
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:17
  6. Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) that predict the absolute risk of a clinical condition or future outcome for individual patients are abundant in the medical literature; however, systematic reviews have demons...

    Authors: Laura E. Cowley, Daniel M. Farewell, Sabine Maguire and Alison M. Kemp
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:16
  7. Shoulder pain is one of the most common presentations of musculoskeletal pain with a 1-month population prevalence of between 7 and 26%. The overall prognosis of shoulder pain is highly variable with 40% of pa...

    Authors: Danielle A. van der Windt, Danielle L. Burke, Opeyemi Babatunde, Miriam Hattle, Cliona McRobert, Chris Littlewood, Gwenllian Wynne-Jones, Linda Chesterton, Geert J. M. G. van der Heijden, Jan C. Winters, Daniel I. Rhon, Kim Bennell, Edward Roddy, Carl Heneghan, David Beard, Jonathan L. Rees…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:15
  8. Prognostic markers use an individual’s characteristics at a given time to predict future disease events, with the ultimate goal of guiding medical decision-making. If an accurate prediction can be made, then a...

    Authors: Aasthaa Bansal and Patrick J. Heagerty
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:14
  9. Over the past few years, evidence synthesis has become essential to investigate and improve the generalizability of medical research findings. This strategy often involves a meta-analysis to formally summarize...

    Authors: Thomas P.A. Debray, Valentijn M.T. de Jong, Karel G.M. Moons and Richard D. Riley
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:13
  10. Adequate field triage of trauma patients is crucial to transport patients to the right hospital. Mistriage and subsequent interhospital transfers should be minimized to reduce avoidable mortality, life-long di...

    Authors: Rogier van der Sluijs, Thomas P. A. Debray, Martijn Poeze, Loek P. H. Leenen and Mark van Heijl
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:12
  11. Discriminative ability is an important aspect of prediction model performance, but challenging to assess in clustered (e.g., multicenter) data. Concordance (c)-indexes may be too extreme within small clusters....

    Authors: David van Klaveren, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Mithat Gönen and Yvonne Vergouwe
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:11
  12. Driven by alcohol consumption and obesity, the prevalence of non-viral liver disease in the UK is increasing. Due to its silent and slow nature, the progression of liver disease is currently unpredictable and ...

    Authors: Suvi Härmälä, Alastair O’Brien, Constantinos A. Parisinos, Kenan Direk, Laura Shallcross and Andrew Hayward
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:10
  13. Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at high risk of adverse outcomes, but it is not possible to predict which pregnancies will develop complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate, in monochorionic twin ...

    Authors: Fiona L. Mackie, Rebecca Whittle, R. Katie Morris, Jon Hyett, Richard D. Riley and Mark D. Kilby
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:9
  14. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), bacteria which are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, present an urgent public health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the potent...

    Authors: Eoin Moloney, Kai Wai Lee, Dawn Craig, A. Joy Allen, Sara Graziadio, Michael Power and Carolyn Steeds
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:8
  15. Assessment of diagnostic tests, broadly defined as any element that aids in the collection of additional information for further clarification of a patient’s health status, has increasingly become a critical i...

    Authors: Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Andrea C. Tricco, Karen R. Steingart, Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, David Kaunelis, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Susan Baxter, Patrick M. Bossuyt and Javier Zamora
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:7
  16. In addition to direct slide microscopy, traditional culture method (TCM) has long been considered as a gold standard method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, TCM is relatively expensi...

    Authors: Lensa Aberra, Adugna Abera, Tariku Belay, Amha Kebede, Endalamaw Gadisa and Geremew Tasew
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:4
  17. Many studies have been performed to identify important prognostic factors for outcomes after rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain, and there is a need to synthesize them through systematic review. In t...

    Authors: Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas Grooten, Elena Tseli, Björn Olov Äng, Katja Boersma, Britt-Marie Stålnacke, Björn Gerdle and Paul Enthoven
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:5
  18. Clinical prediction models are often constructed using multicenter databases. Such a data structure poses additional challenges for statistical analysis (clustered data) but offers opportunities for model gene...

    Authors: L. Wynants, D. M. Kent, D. Timmerman, C. M. Lundquist and B. Van Calster
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:6
  19. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines provide a class I recommendation for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) ...

    Authors: Andrew Perry, Matthew J. Chung, Eric Novak, Ronald Krone and David L. Brown
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:3
  20. Personalized, precision, and risk-based medicine are becoming increasingly important in medicine. These involve the use of information about the prognosis of a patient, to make individualized treatment decisio...

    Authors: Johanna A. A. G. Damen and Lotty Hooft
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:2
  21. Low back pain is one of the most common and disabling health problems in Canada and internationally. In most cases, low back pain is a benign, self-limiting condition that can be managed with little diagnostic...

    Authors: Jill A. Hayden, Rachel Ogilvie, Samuel Alan Stewart, Simon French, Samuel Campbell, Kirk Magee, Patrick Slipp, George Wells and Ian Stiell
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2019 3:1
  22. Disease populations, clinical practice, and healthcare systems are constantly evolving. This can result in clinical prediction models quickly becoming outdated and less accurate over time. A potential solution...

    Authors: David A. Jenkins, Matthew Sperrin, Glen P. Martin and Niels Peek
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:23
  23. Lung cancer is a common cancer, with over 1.3 million cases worldwide each year. Early diagnosis using computed tomography (CT) screening has been shown to reduce mortality but also detect non-malignant nodule...

    Authors: Jason L. Oke, Lyndsey C. Pickup, Jérôme Declerck, Matthew E. Callister, David Baldwin, Jennifer Gustafson, Heiko Peschl, Sarim Ather, Maria Tsakok, Alan Exell and Fergus Gleeson
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:22
  24. Population-based risk prediction tools exist for individual chronic diseases. From a population health perspective, studying chronic diseases together provides a comprehensive view of the burden of disease in ...

    Authors: Ryan Ng, Rinku Sutradhar, Walter P. Wodchis and Laura C. Rosella
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:19
  25. Building prognostic models of clinical outcomes is an increasingly important research task and will remain a vital area in genomic medicine. Prognostic models of clinical outcomes are usually built and validat...

    Authors: Lira Pi and Susan Halabi
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:21
  26. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on the earlier detection of deterioration in the clinical condition of hospital patients with the aim of instigating earlier treatment to reverse this deteriora...

    Authors: Matthew J. Reed, Megan McGrath, Polly L. Black, Steff Lewis, Christopher McCann, Stewart Whiting, Rachel O’Brien, Alison Grant, Beth Harrison, Laura Skyrme and Miranda Odam
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:18
  27. Chest X-ray has been the standard imaging method for patients suspected of non-traumatic pulmonary disease at the emergency department (ED) for years. Recently, ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (ULD ch...

    Authors: Inge A. H. van den Berk, Maadrika M. N. P. Kanglie, Tjitske S. R. van Engelen, Shandra Bipat, Marcel G. W. Dijkgraaf, Patrick M. M. Bossuyt, Wouter de Monyé, Jan M. Prins and Jaap Stoker
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:20

    The Update to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:407

  28. Influenza is an acute viral infection of the respiratory tract. A rapid confirmatory diagnosis of influenza is important, since it is highly transmissible and outbreaks of influenza within the hospital setting...

    Authors: A. J. Allen, R. A. O’Leary, S. Davis, S. Graziadio, W. S. Jones, A. J. Simpson, D. A. Price, L. Vale and M. Power
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:15
  29. The risk reclassification table assesses clinical performance of a biomarker in terms of movements across relevant risk categories. The Reclassification- Calibration (RC) statistic has been developed for binar...

    Authors: Olga V. Demler, Nina P. Paynter and Nancy R. Cook
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:16
  30. Competing risks occur when populations may experience outcomes that either preclude or alter the probability of experiencing the main study outcome(s). Many standard survival analysis methods do not account fo...

    Authors: Benjamin G. Feakins, Emily C. McFadden, Andrew J. Farmer and Richard J. Stevens
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:13
  31. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism in suspected patients is notoriously difficult as signs and symptoms are non-specific. Different diagnostic strategies have been developed, usually combining clinical probability ...

    Authors: G.-J. Geersing, N. Kraaijpoel, H. R. Büller, S. van Doorn, N. van Es, G. Le Gal, M. V. Huisman, C. Kearon, J. A. Kline, K. G. M. Moons, M. Miniati, M. Righini, P.-M. Roy, S. J. van der Wall, P. S. Wells and F. A. Klok
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:10
  32. An important aim of clinical prediction models is to positively impact clinical decision making and subsequent patient outcomes. The impact on clinical decision making and patient outcome can be quantified in ...

    Authors: Teus H. Kappen, Wilton A. van Klei, Leo van Wolfswinkel, Cor J. Kalkman, Yvonne Vergouwe and Karel G. M. Moons
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:11
  33. Head injury is an extremely common clinical presentation to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Ninety-five percent of patients present with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13–15, indicating a n...

    Authors: Carl Marincowitz, Fiona E. Lecky, William Townend, Victoria Allgar, Andrea Fabbri and Trevor A. Sheldon
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:6
  34. In literature, not much emphasis has been placed on methods for analyzing repeatedly measured independent variables, even less so for the use in prediction modeling specifically. However, repeated measurements...

    Authors: Marieke Welten, Marlou L. A. de Kroon, Carry M. Renders, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Hein Raat, Jos W. R. Twisk and Martijn W. Heymans
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:5
  35. Prognostic models incorporating survival analysis predict the risk (i.e., probability) of experiencing a future event over a specific time period. In 2002, Royston and Parmar described a type of flexible param...

    Authors: Ryan Ng, Kathy Kornas, Rinku Sutradhar, Walter P. Wodchis and Laura C. Rosella
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:4
  36. Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) should be externally validated by independent researchers. Although there are many cardiovascular CPRs, most have not been externally validated. It is not known why some CPRs a...

    Authors: Jong-Wook Ban, Richard Stevens and Rafael Perera
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:3
  37. Presenting results of diagnostic test accuracy research so that it is accessible to users is challenging. Commonly used accuracy measures (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) are poorly understood by health prof...

    Authors: Penny Whiting and Clare Davenport
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:2
  38. Unexpected weight loss is a symptom of serious disease in primary care, for example between 1 in 200 and 1 in 30 patients with unexpected weight loss go on to develop cancer. However, it remains unclear how an...

    Authors: B. D. Nicholson, P. Aveyard, F. D. R. Hobbs, M. Smith, A. Fuller, R. Perera, W. Hamilton, S. Stevens and C. R. Bankhead
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:1
  39. Surrogate outcomes are often utilized when disease outcomes are difficult to directly measure. When a biological threshold effect exists, surrogate outcomes may only represent disease in specific subpopulation...

    Authors: Derek K. Smith, Loren E. Smith, Frederic T. Billings IV and Jeffrey D. Blume
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:21
  40. Clinical predictive models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision-making and individualize care. The Tufts Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiv...

    Authors: Benjamin S. Wessler, Jessica Paulus, Christine M. Lundquist, Muhammad Ajlan, Zuhair Natto, William A. Janes, Nitin Jethmalani, Gowri Raman, Jennifer S. Lutz and David M. Kent
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:20
  41. A variety of statistics have been proposed as tools to help investigators assess the value of diagnostic tests or prediction models. The Brier score has been recommended on the grounds that it is a proper scor...

    Authors: Melissa Assel, Daniel D. Sjoberg and Andrew J. Vickers
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:19
  42. Research on prognostic prediction models frequently uses data from routine healthcare. However, potential misclassification of predictors when using such data may strongly affect the studied associations. Ther...

    Authors: S. van Doorn, T. B. Brakenhoff, K. G. M. Moons, F. H. Rutten, A. W. Hoes, R. H. H. Groenwold and G. J. Geersing
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:18
  43. Disease prevalence is rarely explicitly considered in the early stages of the development of novel prognostic tests. Rather, researchers use the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) as the ...

    Authors: Grégoire Thomas, Louise C. Kenny, Philip N. Baker and Robin Tuytten
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:17
  44. Pre-eclampsia, a condition with raised blood pressure and proteinuria is associated with an increased risk of maternal and offspring mortality and morbidity. Early identification of mothers at risk is needed t...

    Authors: John Allotey, Kym I. E. Snell, Claire Chan, Richard Hooper, Julie Dodds, Ewelina Rogozinska, Khalid S. Khan, Lucilla Poston, Louise Kenny, Jenny Myers, Basky Thilaganathan, Lucy Chappell, Ben W. Mol, Peter Von Dadelszen, Asif Ahmed, Marcus Green…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:16

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