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  1. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism in suspected patients is notoriously difficult as signs and symptoms are non-specific. Different diagnostic strategies have been developed, usually combining clinical probability ...

    Authors: G.-J. Geersing, N. Kraaijpoel, H. R. Büller, S. van Doorn, N. van Es, G. Le Gal, M. V. Huisman, C. Kearon, J. A. Kline, K. G. M. Moons, M. Miniati, M. Righini, P.-M. Roy, S. J. van der Wall, P. S. Wells and F. A. Klok
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:10
  2. An important aim of clinical prediction models is to positively impact clinical decision making and subsequent patient outcomes. The impact on clinical decision making and patient outcome can be quantified in ...

    Authors: Teus H. Kappen, Wilton A. van Klei, Leo van Wolfswinkel, Cor J. Kalkman, Yvonne Vergouwe and Karel G. M. Moons
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:11
  3. Head injury is an extremely common clinical presentation to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Ninety-five percent of patients present with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13–15, indicating a n...

    Authors: Carl Marincowitz, Fiona E. Lecky, William Townend, Victoria Allgar, Andrea Fabbri and Trevor A. Sheldon
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:6
  4. In literature, not much emphasis has been placed on methods for analyzing repeatedly measured independent variables, even less so for the use in prediction modeling specifically. However, repeated measurements...

    Authors: Marieke Welten, Marlou L. A. de Kroon, Carry M. Renders, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Hein Raat, Jos W. R. Twisk and Martijn W. Heymans
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:5
  5. Prognostic models incorporating survival analysis predict the risk (i.e., probability) of experiencing a future event over a specific time period. In 2002, Royston and Parmar described a type of flexible param...

    Authors: Ryan Ng, Kathy Kornas, Rinku Sutradhar, Walter P. Wodchis and Laura C. Rosella
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:4
  6. Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) should be externally validated by independent researchers. Although there are many cardiovascular CPRs, most have not been externally validated. It is not known why some CPRs a...

    Authors: Jong-Wook Ban, Richard Stevens and Rafael Perera
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:3
  7. Presenting results of diagnostic test accuracy research so that it is accessible to users is challenging. Commonly used accuracy measures (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) are poorly understood by health prof...

    Authors: Penny Whiting and Clare Davenport
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:2
  8. Unexpected weight loss is a symptom of serious disease in primary care, for example between 1 in 200 and 1 in 30 patients with unexpected weight loss go on to develop cancer. However, it remains unclear how an...

    Authors: B. D. Nicholson, P. Aveyard, F. D. R. Hobbs, M. Smith, A. Fuller, R. Perera, W. Hamilton, S. Stevens and C. R. Bankhead
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:1
  9. Surrogate outcomes are often utilized when disease outcomes are difficult to directly measure. When a biological threshold effect exists, surrogate outcomes may only represent disease in specific subpopulation...

    Authors: Derek K. Smith, Loren E. Smith, Frederic T. Billings IV and Jeffrey D. Blume
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:21
  10. Clinical predictive models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision-making and individualize care. The Tufts Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiv...

    Authors: Benjamin S. Wessler, Jessica Paulus, Christine M. Lundquist, Muhammad Ajlan, Zuhair Natto, William A. Janes, Nitin Jethmalani, Gowri Raman, Jennifer S. Lutz and David M. Kent
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:20
  11. A variety of statistics have been proposed as tools to help investigators assess the value of diagnostic tests or prediction models. The Brier score has been recommended on the grounds that it is a proper scor...

    Authors: Melissa Assel, Daniel D. Sjoberg and Andrew J. Vickers
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:19
  12. Research on prognostic prediction models frequently uses data from routine healthcare. However, potential misclassification of predictors when using such data may strongly affect the studied associations. Ther...

    Authors: S. van Doorn, T. B. Brakenhoff, K. G. M. Moons, F. H. Rutten, A. W. Hoes, R. H. H. Groenwold and G. J. Geersing
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:18
  13. Disease prevalence is rarely explicitly considered in the early stages of the development of novel prognostic tests. Rather, researchers use the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) as the ...

    Authors: Grégoire Thomas, Louise C. Kenny, Philip N. Baker and Robin Tuytten
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:17
  14. Pre-eclampsia, a condition with raised blood pressure and proteinuria is associated with an increased risk of maternal and offspring mortality and morbidity. Early identification of mothers at risk is needed t...

    Authors: John Allotey, Kym I. E. Snell, Claire Chan, Richard Hooper, Julie Dodds, Ewelina Rogozinska, Khalid S. Khan, Lucilla Poston, Louise Kenny, Jenny Myers, Basky Thilaganathan, Lucy Chappell, Ben W. Mol, Peter Von Dadelszen, Asif Ahmed, Marcus Green…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:16
  15. Ignoring treatments in prognostic model development or validation can affect the accuracy and transportability of models. We aim to quantify the extent to which the effects of treatment have been addressed in ...

    Authors: Romin Pajouheshnia, Johanna A. A. G. Damen, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Karel G. M. Moons and Linda M. Peelen
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:15
  16. Improved dementia identification is a global health priority, and general practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of contact for people with concerns about their cognition. However, GPs often express unc...

    Authors: Harriet A. Hunt, Sanne Van Kampen, Yemisi Takwoingi, David J. Llewellyn, Mark Pearson and Christopher J. Hyde
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:14
  17. Diagnostic clinical prediction rules (CPRs) are worthwhile if they improve patient outcomes or provide benefits such as reduced resource use, without harming patients. We conducted a systematic review to asses...

    Authors: Sharon L. Sanders, John Rathbone, Katy J. L. Bell, Paul P. Glasziou and Jenny A. Doust
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:13
  18. Stability in baseline risk and estimated predictor effects both geographically and temporally is a desirable property of clinical prediction models. However, this issue has received little attention in the met...

    Authors: Peter C. Austin, David van Klaveren, Yvonne Vergouwe, Daan Nieboer, Douglas S. Lee and Ewout W. Steyerberg
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:12
  19. The use of multinomial logistic regression models is advocated for modeling the associations of covariates with three or more mutually exclusive outcome categories. As compared to a binary logistic regression ...

    Authors: Maarten van Smeden, Joris AH de Groot, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Loes CM Bertens, Karel GM Moons and Johannes B. Reitsma
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:8
  20. Authors: Gowri Gopalakrishna, Miranda Langendam, Rob Scholten, Patrick Bossuyt, Mariska Leeflang, Anna Noel-Storr, James Thomas, Iain Marshall, Byron Wallace, Penny Whiting, Clare Davenport, Mariska Leeflang, Gowri GopalaKrishna, Isabel de Salis, Sue Mallett, Robert Wolff…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:11

    The original article was published in Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:7

  21. The purpose of the predictors for major cardiovascular outcomes in stable ischaemic heart disease (PREMAC) study is exploratory and hypothesis generating. We want to identify biochemical quantities which—condi...

    Authors: Per Winkel, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Jørgen Hilden, Theis Lange, Gorm Boje Jensen, Erik Kjøller, Ahmad Sajadieh, Jens Kastrup, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Anders Larsson, Johan Ärnlöv and Christian Gluud
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:10
  22. Prognosis research refers to the investigation of association between a baseline health state, patient characteristic and future outcomes. The findings of several prognostic studies can be summarized in system...

    Authors: Davide Matino, Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha and Alfonso Iorio
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:9
  23. Early-onset pre-eclampsia with raised blood pressure and protein in the urine before 34 weeks’ gestation is one of the leading causes of maternal deaths in the UK. The benefits to the child from prolonging the...

    Authors: John Allotey, Nadine Marlin, Ben W. Mol, Peter Von Dadelszen, Wessel Ganzevoort, Joost Akkermans, Asif Ahmed, Jane Daniels, Jon Deeks, Khaled Ismail, Ann Marie Barnard, Julie Dodds, Sally Kerry, Carl Moons, Khalid S. Khan, Richard D. Riley…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:6
  24. Authors: Gowri Gopalakrishna, Miranda Langendam, Rob Scholten, Patrick Bossuyt, Mariska Leeflang, Anna Noel-Storr, James Thomas, Iain Marshall, Byron Wallace, Penny Whiting, Clare Davenport, Mariska Leeflang, Gowri GopalaKrishna, Isabel de Salis, Sue Mallett, Robert Wolff…
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1(Suppl 1):7

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 1 Supplement 1

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:11

  25. Numerous prediction models for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been developed, but their methodological quality is unknown. The objective is to systematically review all studies describing first-trime...

    Authors: Marije Lamain – de Ruiter, Anneke Kwee, Christiana A. Naaktgeboren, Arie Franx, Karel G. M. Moons and Maria P. H. Koster
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:3
  26. Risk models often perform poorly at external validation in terms of discrimination or calibration. Updating methods are needed to improve performance of multinomial logistic regression models for risk prediction.

    Authors: Ben Van Calster, Kirsten Van Hoorde, Yvonne Vergouwe, Shabnam Bobdiwala, George Condous, Emma Kirk, Tom Bourne and Ewout W. Steyerberg
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:2
  27. Prognosis research studies (e.g. those deriving prognostic models or examining potential predictors of outcome) often collect information on time-varying predictors after their intended moment of use, sometimes u...

    Authors: Rebecca Whittle, Kara-Louise Royle, Kelvin P. Jordan, Richard D. Riley, Christian D. Mallen and George Peat
    Citation: Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2017 1:1

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